Young Driver Licensing Systems in the U.S.

State Learner stage Intermediate stage:
restrictions on driving
while unsupervised
Unrestricted stage:
minimum age at
which restrictions
may be lifted
  Minimum
entry
age
Mandatory
holding
period
Minimum amount
of supervised
driving
Minimum
age
Unsupervised
driving
prohibited
Restriction on passengers
(family members excepted
unless otherwise noted)
Nighttime
restrictions
Passenger
restrictions
AL 151
6 months1
30 hours1 (none with driver education)
16
midnight-6 a.m.; duration: at least 6 months and age 17 secondary enforcement


no more than 1 passenger; duration: at least 6 months and age 17 secondary enforcement
172
172
AK 14
6 months
40 hours, 10 of which must be at night or in inclement weather
16
1 a.m.-5 a.m.; duration: 6 months
no passengers younger than 21; duration: 6 months
16, 6 months
16, 6 months
AZ 15, 6 months3
6 months
30 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education)
16
midnight-5 a.m.; duration: 6 months secondary enforcement
no more than 1 passenger younger than 18; duration: 6 months secondary enforcement
16, 6 months
16, 6 months
AR 144
6 months4
none
165
11 p.m.-4 a.m.; duration: until age 18
no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; duration: until age 18
18
18
CA 15, 6 months6
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
166
11 p.m.-5 a.m.; duration: 12 months secondary enforcement
no passengers younger than 20 (limited exception for immediate family) duration: 12 months secondary enforcement
17
17
CO 157
12 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
16
midnight-5 a.m.; duration 12 months secondary enforcement
no passengers younger than 21; duration: first 6 months; no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; duration: second 6 months secondary enforcement
17
17
CT 168
6 months8 (4 months with driver education)
40 hours8
16, 4 months8
11 p.m. - 5 a.m.; duration: until age 18
no passengers other than parents or a driving instructor; duration: first 6 months; no passengers other than parents, driving instructor, or members of the immediate family; duration: second 6 months
18
17, 4 months
DE 169
6 months9
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night9
16, 6 months9
10 p.m.-6 a.m.; duration: at least 6 months and until the issuance of a class D operator's license9
no more than 1 passenger; duration: at least 6 months and until the issuance of a class D operator's license9
17
17
DC 1610
6 months
40 hours in learner’s stage; 10 hours at night in intermediate stage
16, 6 months11
September–June: 11 p.m.-6 a.m. Sun.–Thur., 12:01 a.m.-6 a.m. Sat.–Sun.; July–August: 12:01 a.m.-6 a.m.; duration: entire provisional license stage12
no passengers; duration: first 6 months; thereafter, no more than 2 passengers; duration: entire provisional license stage12
18
18
FL 1513
12 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
16
11 p.m.-6 a.m. for 16 year-olds; 1 a.m.-5 a.m. for 17 year-olds
none
18
no
GA 15
12 months
40 hours, 6 of which must be at night
1614
midnight-6 a.m.; duration: at least 12 consecutive months and age 18 secondary enforcement
no passengers for the first 6 months; no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 for the second 6 months; thereafter no more than 3 passengers younger than 21; duration: at least 12 consecutive months and age 18 secondary enforcement
18
18
HI 15, 6 months
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1615
11 p.m.-5 a.m.; duration: at least 6 months and age 17
no more than 1 passenger younger than 18 (household members excepted); duration: at least 6 months and age 17
17
17
ID 14, 6 months16
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1516
sunset to sunrise; duration: until age 16
licensees younger than 17 may have no more than 1 passenger younger than 17; duration: 6 months
16
15, 6 months
IL 1517
9 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1618
starts 10 p.m. Sun.-Thur., 11 p.m. Fri.-Sat., ends 6 a.m.; duration: until age 18
no more than 1 passenger younger than 20; duration: first 12 months or until age 18
18
17
IN 1519
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
16, 6 months (16, 9 months without driver education)19
First 180 days, 10 p.m.-5 a.m.; thereafter, 11 p.m.-5 a.m. Sun.–Fri.; 1 a.m.-5 a.m. Sat.–Sun.
first 180 days-no passengers
18
17 (17, 3 months without driver education)
IA 14
12 months
20 hours, 2 of which must be at night20
1621,20
12:30 a.m.-5 a.m.
parental discretion 22
1723
no
KS 1424
12 months
25 hours, in learner phase; 25 hours before age 16; 10 of the 50 hours must be at night24
1624
9 p.m. - 5 a.m.
first 6 months - no more than one passenger younger than 18
16, 6 months
16, 6 months
KY 1625
6 months25
60 hours, 10 of which must be at night25
16, 6 months26
midnight-6 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger younger than 20 unless supervised by a driving instructor secondary enforcement
17
17
LA 1527
6 months
50 hours, 15 of which must be at night
1627
11 p.m.-5 a.m.
no more than one passenger younger than 21 between the hours of 6 pm-5 am; no passenger restriction from 5 am-6 pm
17
17
ME 1528
6 months28
70 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1628
midnight-5 a.m.28
first 9 months—no passengers28
16, 9 months
16, 9 months
MD 15, 9 months
9 months29
60 hours, 10 of which must be at night
16, 6 months
midnight-5 a.m.30
first 5 months—no passengers younger than 18 secondary enforcement
18
16, 11 months
MA 1631
6 months31
40 hours32
16, 6 months33
12:30 a.m.-5 a.m. (between 12:30 a.m.-1 a.m. and 4 a.m.-5 a.m. the night

driving and passenger restrictions are subject to secondary

enforcement; enforcement is primary at all other times)


first 6 months—no passengers younger than 18 (between 12:30 am–1 am and 4 am–5 am the night driving and passenger restrictions are secondarily enforced; enforcement is primary at all other times)
18
17
MI 14, 9 months34
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1635
10 p.m.-5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger younger than 21
17
17
MN 1536
6 months37
30 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1638
midnight-5 a.m.
first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 20; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 20
16, 6 months
17
MS 15
12 months39
none
1640
10 p.m.-6 a.m. Sun.-Thur., 11:30 p.m.-6 a.m. Fri.-Sat.
none
16, 6 months
no
MO 15
6 months
40 hours, 10 of which must be at night
16
1 a.m.-5 a.m.
first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 19; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers younger than 19
17, 11 months
17, 11 months
MT 14, 6 months41
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1542
11 p.m.-5 a.m.
first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 18; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 18
16
16
NE 1543
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education)
16
midnight-6 a.m. secondary enforcement
first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 19 secondary enforcement
17
16, 6 months
NV 15, 6 months
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1644
10 p.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement
first 6 months—no passengers younger than 18 secondary enforcement
18
16, 6 months
NH 15, 6 months45
none
40 hours, 10 of which must be at night
16
1 a.m.-4 a.m.
first 6 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 25
18
16, 6 months
NJ 1646
6 months46
none
1746
11 p.m. - 5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger (exception is limited to drivers' dependents)
18
18
NM 1547
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
15, 6 months48
midnight-5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger younger than 21
16, 6 months
16, 6 months
NY 1649
6 months
50 hours, 15 of which must be at night
16, 6 months49
prohibited at all times in NYC (five boroughs); all times in Nassau and Suffolk Counties except for limited (5 a.m.-9 p.m.) travel to work, school and driver’s education, proof required; otherwise 9 p.m.-5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger younger than 2149
17 (18 without driver education)49
17 (18 without driver education)49
NC 1550,51
12 months51
60 hours, 10 of which must be at night, learner phase; 12 hours, 6 of which must be at night, intermediate phase
1652,53
9 p.m.-5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; if a family member younger than 21 is already a passenger then no other passengers younger than 21 who are not family members
16, 6 months
16, 6 months
ND 14


16; 15 for a parent requested restricted license
The holder of a restricted license may only drive a car belonging to a parent or guardian and may not drive between the later of sunset or 9 p.m. and 5 a.m.
none
16
none
OH 15, 6 months
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1654
midnight-6 a.m. (age 16), 1 a.m.-5 a.m. (age 17) secondary enforcement
no more than 1 passenger unless supervised


18
17
OK 15, 6 months55
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night56
16
10 p.m.-5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger57
16, 6 months (17 without driver education)
16, 6 months (17 without driver education)
OR 15
6 months
50 hours58(100 hours without driver education)
1658
midnight-5 a.m.
first 6 months–no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months–no more than 3 passengers younger than 20
17
17
PA 16
6 months
65 hours, 10 of which must be at night and 5 of which must be in inclement weather
16, 6 months
11 p.m.-5 a.m.
first 6 months— no more than 1 passenger younger than 18; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers
17
17
RI 1659
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
16, 6 months60
1 a.m.-5 a.m.
first 12 months–no more than 1 passenger younger than 21
17, 6 months
17, 6 months
SC 15
6 months
40 hours, 10 of which must be at night
15, 6 months
6 p.m.-6 a.m. EST; 8 p.m.-6 a.m. EDT
no more than 2 passengers younger than 21 unless transporting students to and from school
16, 6 months
16, 6 months
SD 1461
6 months (3 months with driver education)
none61
14, 6 months (14, 3 months with driver education)
10 p.m.-6 a.m.
none
16
no
TN 1562
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night62
16
11 p.m.-6 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger
17
17
TX 1563
6 months
30 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1664
midnight-5 a.m. secondary enforcement
no more than 1 passenger younger than 21 secondary enforcement
18
18
UT 1565
6 months
40 hours, 10 of which must be at night65,66
1667
midnight-5 a.m.
first 6 months—no passengers68 secondary enforcement
17
16, 6 months68
VT 15
12 months
40 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1669
none
first 3 months—no passengers without exception; second 3 months—no passengers secondary enforcement
no
16, 6 months
VA 15, 6 months70
9 months70
45 hours, 15 of which must be at night
16, 3 months71
midnight-4 a.m. 70 secondary enforcement
first 12 months—no more than 1 passenger younger than 21; thereafter, no more than 3 passengers younger than 21 secondary enforcement
18
18
WA 1572
6 months
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1673
1 a.m.-5 a.m. secondary enforcement
first 6 months—no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months—no more than 3 passengers younger than 20 secondary enforcement
1774
1774
WV 1575
6 months75
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night (none with driver education)
16
10 p.m. - 5 a.m.
first 6 months—no passengers younger than 20; second 6 months–no more than 1 passenger younger than 20
17
17
WI 15, 6 months76
6 months76
30 hours, 10 of which must be at night76
1677
midnight-5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger
16, 9 months
16, 9 months
WY 15
10 days
50 hours, 10 of which must be at night
1678
11 p.m.-5 a.m.
no more than 1 passenger younger than 18
16, 6 months78
16, 6 months78

9In Delaware, a driver education student does not need a permit to drive with a driver education instructor. After completing the on-road requirements of driver education, a driver education student who is at least 15 years, 10 months may apply for a Driver Education Learner's Permit, which allows the student to drive while supervised by an experienced driver. Upon completion of driver education, and if the student passes both the road and written tests, the student receives a Level 1 permit that for the first six months allows driving only while supervised. There also is a passenger restriction during the first six months of the Level 1 permit. No more than one passenger (family members excepted) is permitted in addition to the supervising driver. The Level 1 permit for the second six months is the equivalent of an intermediate license. During that period, holders may drive unsupervised between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. and may only carry one passenger. Applicants for a driver's license who are younger than 18 must have held a Driver Education Learner's Permit and/or a Level 1 permit for at least 12 months. Driver education is required for all license applicants younger than 18.

10In the District of Columbia, the learner's stage is mandatory for all license applicants, regardless of age. A nighttime restriction (9 p.m.-6 a.m.) applies in the learner stage.

11In the District of Columbia, license applicants younger than 21 must go through the intermediate stage until they have completed it or until they turn 21.

12Provisional license holders who are younger than 21 are required to adhere to the night and passenger restriction for the duration of the stage, six-month minimum. Drivers younger than 18 who hold a full license with conditions must also adhere to the night and passenger restrictions.

13In Florida, learners permit holders may not drive after sunset for the first three months and thereafter may not drive after 10 p.m.

14In Georgia, license applicants younger than 17 must have completed driver education.

15In Hawaii, license applicants younger than 18 must have completed driver education.

16In Idaho, license applicants younger than 17 must have completed driver education. There are three classes of learner's permits — a training instruction permit for people 14, 6 months taking driver education; a supervised instruction permit for practice driving with a nonprofessional supervisor; and an instruction permit for people younger than 17 who have completed driver education and supervised driving or for people 17 and older without either driver education or supervised driving.

17In Illinois, enrollment in driver education is required for permit applicants.

18In Illinois, license applicants 18 through 20 years of age who did not take driver's education in school must complete a 6 hour adult driver education course.

19In Indiana, driver education determines the minimum age for permits and the intermediate license. People enrolled in or who have completed driver education must be age 15 to have a permit; otherwise, they must be age 16. The minimum age for an intermediate license is 16, 6 months with driver education and 16, 9 months, without.

20Iowa requires a certification of 10 additional hours of supervised driving during the intermediate stage, two of which must be at night.

21In Iowa, driver education is required for an intermediate license and for an unrestricted license if the applicant is younger than 18.

22In Iowa, parents are permitted to waive at the time of licensure a discretionary six-month passenger limit of no more than one unrelated passenger younger than 18, effective Jan. 1, 2014.

23In Iowa, restrictions end after holding an intermediate license for at least one year and reaching age 17.

24In Kansas, drivers age 15 but not yet 16 may be granted a restricted license if they have completed driver training. Restricted license holders younger than 16 may not drive unless supervised other than to and from school or work via the most direct route and may not carry minor passengers other than siblings. To get a restricted license, applicants must have driven at least 25 of the 50 hours required for a full license and must have held an instruction permit for 12 months.

25Kentucky law prohibits learner's permit holders from driving between midnight and 6 a.m. or from carrying more than one passenger younger than 20 unless supervised by a driving instructor.

26In Kentucky, license holders younger than 18 must complete a driver education course or a state-sponsored traffic school.

27In Louisiana, driver education is required for a permit and an intermediate license if the applicant is younger than 18. People 18 and older must have completed a prelicensing training course including a minimum of 8 hours of behind-the-wheel instruction.

28In Maine, driver education is required for a permit and a license if the applicant is younger than 18. The learner's permit holding period and the certification of practice driving applies to license applicants younger than 21. The period of license restrictions may extend beyond the person's 18th birthday.

29In Maryland, all license applicants younger than 25 must hold a learner's permit for nine months before taking the road test and all applicants 25 and older must hold the permit for 45 days.

30In Maryland, the nighttime driving restriction only applies to intermediate license holders younger than 18.

31In Massachusetts, the night driving restriction for permit holders younger than 18 is midnight to 5 a.m., unless they are accompanied by a licensed parent or guardian.

32In Massachusetts, the requirement for supervised driving is 30 hours for applicants who have successfully completed a driver skills development program in a closed, off-road course licensed by the Registrar of Motor Vehicles.

33In Massachusetts, driver education is required of license applicants younger than 18.

34In Michigan, permit applicants younger than 18 must have completed the first segment of driver education.

35In Michigan, license applicants younger than 18 must have completed the second segment of driver education. Neither driver education nor an intermediate license is required for license applicants 18 and older.

36In Minnesota, permit applicants younger than 18 must be enrolled in driver education.

37In Minnesota, the permit holding period also applies to license applicants 18 and older unless they have completed driver education.

38In Minnesota, license applicants younger than 18 must have completed driver education. Provisional license holders must be crash-free to qualify for a full license.

39In Mississippi, license applicants 17 and older are exempt from the 12-month learner’s permit holding period.

40In Mississippi, license applicants 17 and older are exempt from the requirement to get an intermediate license.

41In Montana, enrollment in or completion of driver education is required for permit applicants younger than 15.

42In Montana, license applicants younger than 16 must have completed driver education.

43In Nebraska, 14 year-olds who live 1.5 miles or more from school and who either live outside or attend school outside a metropolitan area may be issued a learner’s permit (called an “LPE permit”) and a limited license (called a “school permit”). The LPE permit authorizes supervised driving for the purpose of preparing for the school permit, which allows driving to and from school independently or anyplace else while supervised by a parent or guardian.

44In Nevada, driver education is required of all license applicants younger than 18 unless there is no driver education program offered within a 30-mile radius of the applicant's residence.

45New Hampshire does not issue learner's permits. At age 15, 6 months a person can drive while supervised by a licensed driver 25 or older. License applicants who are younger than 18 must take driver education.

46In New Jersey, the permit becomes an intermediate license after six months for drivers younger than 21 and after 3 months for drivers 21 and older. The graduated licensing law applies to adults, except that the night driving and passenger restrictions are waived for new drivers 21 and older. If the applicant has not completed driver education, the minimum permit age is 17 and the minimum intermediate license age is 17, 6 months. Learner's permit holders may not drive between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. and may carry only one passenger in addition to the supervising driver or any parent, guardian or dependant.

47In New Mexico, permit applicants younger than 18 must be enrolled in driver education.

48In New Mexico, license applicants younger than 18 must have completed driver education.

49In New York, the minimum age for an unrestricted driver's license is 18 (17 if the applicant has completed driver education). New York has a passenger restriction that applies to permit holders and license holders younger than 18 (17 if the applicant has completed driver education).

50In North Carolina, driver education is required for permit applicants younger than 18.

51In North Carolina, learner’s permit holders may not drive between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m. for the first six months.

52In North Carolina, driver education is required for license applicants younger than 18.

53In North Carolina, a person who is at least 16 but younger than 18 must complete a minimum of 12 additional hours (six of which must be at night) of supervised driving to obtain a full provisional license.

54In Ohio, driver education is required of license applicants younger than 18.

55In Oklahoma, 15 year-olds may drive, but only while supervised by an instructor.

56In Oklahoma, learner's permit holders may only operate a motor vehicle between the hours of 5 a.m. and 10 p.m.

57In Oklahoma, a person who has been issued an intermediate Class D license shall not operate a motor vehicle with more than one passenger unless all passengers live in the same household as the custodial legal parent or legal guardian or a licensed driver at least 21 years of age is actually occupying a seat beside the intermediate Class D licensee.

58In Oregon, driver education is required of license applicants younger than 18. However, it is waived for applicants who certify an additional 50 hours of supervised driving. The night and passenger restrictions do not apply to the holder of a provisional driver license who is 18 or older.

59In Rhode Island, driver education is required of permit applicants younger than 18.

60In Rhode Island, driver education is required of license applicants younger than 18.

61In South Dakota, learner's permit holders may not drive between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. unless under the supervision of a parent or guardian.

62Learner’s permit holders in Tennessee may not drive from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m.

63In Texas, people who are 15 or older but under 18 must satisfactorily complete and pass the classroom phase of an approved driver education course to be issued a permit.

64In Texas, the minimum license age is 18 for applicants who have not completed driver education.

65In Utah, permit holders younger than 18 may only drive under the supervision of a driving instructor, a parent or guardian, or a responsible adult who has accepted liability for the permit holder's driving by signing the permit application. Permit applicants younger than 19 must be enrolled in driver education.

66In Utah, supervised driving in the learner stage may include up to five hours in a driving simulator.

67In Utah license applicants who are younger than 19 must have completed driver education.

68In Utah, passenger restrictions end when a driver has been licensed for six months or when the driver turns 18, whichever occurs first.

69In Vermont, driver education is required for license applicants younger than 18.

70In Virginia, the night driving restriction and passenger restrictions apply to learner's permit holders.

71In Virginia, driver education is required for license applicants younger than 19 (18 if applicant holds a valid license from another state). Northern Virginia and nearby counties have implemented a 90-minute segment for parents of driver education students.

72In Washington, permit applicants must be enrolled in driver education; otherwise, the minimum permit age is 15, 6 months.

73In Washington, driver education is required for license applicants younger than 18.

74In Washington, intermediate license holders with a crash or violation history are ineligible for an unrestricted license until age 18.

75In West Virginia, learner’s permit holders younger than 18 may not drive between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. and may not carry more than two passengers in addition to the supervising driver.

76In Wisconsin, enrollment in driver education is required for permit applicants younger than 18. During the learner’s stage, permit holders may carry three passengers if supervised by a driving instructor in a dual-control vehicle. Permit holders 16 and older may carry one passenger 25 or older who has been licensed at least two years.

77In Wisconsin driver education is required for license applicants younger than 18.

78In Wyoming, all applicants for an unrestricted license who are younger than 17 must have completed driver education and must have held an intermediate license for at least six months.